WHY DO SPEAKERS USE HESITATION WHEN PRODUCING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE?

Siswoyo Siswoyo

Abstract


It is often found that the speakers hesitate when they are speaking. This article is to investigate the speakers’ hesitation when they produce the English language. The investigations were: (1) forms of hesitation, (2) factors affecting hesitation, and (3) implications of having hesitation in using the English language. The current research used a qualitative perspective in investigating the hesitation. The respondents were 23 students who experienced hesitation in producing the English language. The results of the research revealed that they used (1) un-lexicalized filler, (2) repetition, and (3) no sound before finding the intended words from the mental lexicon. Hesitation is due to limited vocabulary and the speakers’ psychological factors.

Keywords


Hesitation, Language Production, English Language, Mental Lexicon

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afriyanti, R., & Andini, D. S. (2020). Fillers Used by Male and Female Students in Practice Teaching Performance of Micro Teaching Class. TELL-US Journal, 6(1), 13–36.

Ajani, K. M. (2021). They Who Hesitate: The Influencing Factors of Hesitation Phenomena in Students’ Speaking at IAIN Langsa Keane Mariza Ajani 1* 1 English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN Langsa, Indonesia. JADEs: Journal of Academia in English Education, 2(2), 110–134.

Al-Ghazali, A., & Alrefaee, Y. (2019). Silent Pauses in the Speech of Yemeni EFL Learners. ELS Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies on Humanities, 2(1), 39–48. https://doi.org/10.34050/els-jish.v2i1.6008

Al-Tamimi, A., & Shuib, M. (2009). Motivation And Attitudes Towards Learning English : A Study Of Petroleum Engineering Undergraduates At Hadhramout University Of Sciences And Technology. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 9(2), 29–55.

Ariyanti, A. (2016). Psychological Factors Affecting EFL Students’ Speaking Performance. ASIAN TEFL Journal of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 77–88. https://doi.org/10.21462/asiantefl.v1i1.14

Boonsuk, Y., Ambele, E. A., & Buddharat, C. (2019). Position of Hesitation Markers in Everyday, Informal Conversation in English. ABAC Journal, 39(3), 129–140.

Burridge, K., & Stebbins, T. N. (2020). For The Love of Lanaguage: An Introduction To Linguistics (Second Edi). Cambridge Universiry Press.

Bussmann, H. (2006). Dictionary of Language and Linguistics (G. Trauth & K. Kazzazi (eds.); First Publ). Taylor & Francis e-Library.

Carrol, D. W. (2008). Psychology of Language (E. Evans (ed.); Fifth Edit). Thomson Wadsworth.

ChengChiang Chen, J., & Kent, S. (2020). Task Engagement, Learner Motivation and Avatar Identities of Struggling English Language Learners in the 3D Virtual World. System. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.102168

Clark, H. H., & Tree, J. E. F. (2002). Using uh and um in Spontaneous Speaking. Cognition, 84, 73–111.

De Bot, K. (1992). A Bilingual Production Model: Levelt’s ’Speaking’Model Adapted Downloaded from. Applied Linguistics, 13(I), 1–24. http://applij.oxfordjournals.org/

Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and Motivating in the Foreign Language Classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273–284. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1994.tb02042.x

Fatimah, G. S., Febriani, B., & Apollonia, R. (2017). An Analysis of Fillers Used By Lecturer and Students in EFL Classroom Interaction. JALL (Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literacy), 1(2), 43–51. https://doi.org/10.25157/jall.v1i2.1735

Fitriati, S. W., Mujiyanto, J., Susilowati, E., & Akmilia, P. M. (2021). The Use of Conversation Fillers in English by Indonesian EFL Master’s students. Linguistic Research, 38(Special Edition), 25–52. https://doi.org/10.17250/khisli.38..202109.002

Fraundorf, S. H., & Watson, D. G. (2014). Alice’s Adventures in Um-Derland : Psycholinguistic Sources of Variation in Disfluency Production. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29(No.9), 1083–1096. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2013.832785

Haidara, Y. (2016). Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(7), 1501–1505. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2016.040701

Hasan, L. A.-N. K. (2016). The Effect of Lack of Vocabulary on English Language Learners’ Performance with Reference to English Departments students at Salahaddin University-Erbil. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 20(2), 211–227.

Hermida, R. (2019). Vocabulary Acquisition for Young Learners Through Songs. Gender Equality: International Journal of Child and Gender Studies, 5(1), 95–104. https://doi.org/10.22373/equality.v5i1.5381

Jianfeng, C., Raj, G. S., & Ai, J. T. T. (2018). The Correlations among Learning Motivation, Autonomy and Language Proficiency in Chinese EFL Context. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 11(1), 1–14. https://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+motivation&id=EJ1225852%0Ahttps://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/LEARN/article/view/135861

Jon, R. B., Fitri, H. alfiani, & Purnama, B. (2022). Eight Factors Bringing about Students’ Speaking Disfluency in Indonesia. International Journal of English and Applied Linguistics (IJEAL), 2(1), 83–94. https://doi.org/10.47709/ijeal.v2i1.1427

Khan, R. M. I., Radzuan, N. R. M., Shahbaz, M., Ibrahim, A. H., & Mustafa, G. (2019). The Role of Vocabulary Knowledge in Speaking Development of Saudi EFL Learners. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 9(1), 9–25.

Kirkpatrick, A., & Liddicoat, A. J. (2017). Language Education Policy and Practice in East and Southeast Asia. Language Teaching, 50(2), 155–188. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444817000027

Kurnia, C. (2017). Increasing Young Learners’ Vocabulary Mastery By Using English Songs. JELE (Journal of English Language and Education), 3(1), 42–53. https://doi.org/10.26486/jele.v3i1.266

Lamb, M. (2017). The Motivational Dimension of Language Teaching. Language Teaching, 50(3), 301–346. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444817000088

Marian, V., & Spivey, M. (2003). Competing Activation in Bilingual language Processing: Within- and between-LanguagCompetition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6(2), 97–115. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1366728903001068

Merlo, S., & Barbosa, P. A. (2010). Hesitation Phenomena: A Dynamical Perspective. Cogn Process, 11, 251–261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-009-0348-x

Min, Y.-K. (2013). Vocabulary Acquisition: Practical Strategies for ESL Students. Journal of International Students, 3(1), 64–69. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v3i1.520

Nakata, T. (2016). Does Repeated Practice Make Perfect? The Effects of Within-SEssion Repeated Retrieval on SEcond Language Vocabulary Learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 653–679. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263116000280

Ng, C. F., & Ng, P. K. (2015). A Review of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations of ESL Learners. International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics, 24–31. https://doi.org/10.7763/ijlll.2015.v1.20

Pamolango, V. A. (2015). Types and Functions of Fillers Used By the Female Teacher and Lecturer in Surabaya. Jurnal Kajian Kebahasaan & Kesastraan, 15(01)., 15(01), 11–16.

Patahuddin, P., Syawal, S., & Bin-Tahir, S. Z. (2017). Investigating Indonesian EFL Learners’ Learning and Acquiring English Vocabulary. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(4), 128–137. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v7n4p128

Patanduk, S. T. (2019). Speaking English Problems Faced by the Fourth Semester Students of English Education Study Program UKI Toraja. 7(2), 21–30.

Peters, E., & Webb, S. (2018). Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Through Viewing L2 Television and Factors that Affect Learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(3), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263117000407

Rad, S. K., & Abdullah, A. N. (2012). Effect of Context on Types of Hesitation Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners in L2 Oral Language Tests. English Language Teaching, 5(7), 102–109. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v5n7p102

Rahmatian, R., Mehrabi, M., Safa, P., & Golfam, A. (2014). The Study of the Phenomenon of Hesitation as a Cognitive Process in Iranian French Learners’ Oral Production. International Education Studies, 7(2), 106–116. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v7n2p106

Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2010). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguitics (Fourth Edi). Pearson Education Limited.

Rini, J. E. (2014). English in Indonesia: Its position among other languages in Indonesia i. Beyond Words, 2(2), 19–39.

Saleh, S. J., & Majeed, S. J. (2021). Motivation toward English Language Learning among Iraqi University Students. Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, 2(3), 46–56. https://doi.org/10.47631/mejress.v2i3.294

Siahaan, R. A. (2022). The Effect Of Using Jakarta Post Headlines And Sub Headlines as Teaching Media Towards The Students Vocabulary Mastery. The Explora, 8(1), 47–51. https://doi.org/10.51622/explora.v8i1.534

Stevani, A., Sudarsono, & Supardi, I. (2018). An Analysis of Fillers Usage in Academic Presentation. Journal FKIP Untan Pontianak, 2(1), 1–9.

Suliyono. (2022). The Effect of CICADA English Youth Magazine on Secondary School Orphans’ Vocabulary Mastery. Beyond Words, 10(1), 1–14.

Taylor, P. (2009). Text to Speech Systems. In Text-to-Speech Synthesis. Cambridge Universiry Press.

Wang, Y. (2021). A Study on the Use of Hesitation Markers in Varied-Level EFL Learners’ L2 Speaking Process. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 11, 823–840. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojml.2021.115063

Warren, P. (2013). Introducing Psycholinguistics (First). Cambridge University Press.

Widodo, H. P. (2014). Language Policy in Practice: Reframing the English Language Curriculum in the Indonesian Secondary Sector. English Language Education Policy in Asia, 9(November), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22464-0

Zareian, G., & Jodaei, H. (2015). Motivation in Second Language Acquistion: A State of the Art Article. International J. Soc. Sci. & EDUCATION, 5(2), 295–308.

Zulhemindra, MUnir, S., Yulnerti, & Putra, K. P. (2022). Investigating Filled Pauses Found in English Students ’ Conversation. Ahmad Dahlan Journal of English Studies, 9(1), 14–26.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.52657/js.v8i2.1790

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Lisensi Creative Commons
Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.

View My Stats

View My Stats